BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

禁談國內政治、禁發廣告,否則暢所欲言!

BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

文章 Wildcat » 21-04-2017, 05:50 •  [Post 1 樓]

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES That RUN the WORLD

What interests us here are the negatives in Western political support for the Saudi regime. Many will think of the Arab oil embargo of 1973; what we will highlight is the more consequential Saudi SUPPORT of FUNDAMENTALIST Islam worldwide. A crucial year in this story is 1979, a pivot at which much in world history turned. The Soviets invaded Afghanistan, pushing the Cold War deeper into the Muslim world. Religious extremists overthrew the Shah in Iran, scaring the Saudi royals that the same fate might await them. Most dramatically, homegrown Saudi FUNDAMENTALISTS captured the Grand Mosque, the heart of the Muslim faith which the royals are meant to defend. The militants were
dislodged only after a bloody commando raid that left the mosque -- which holds the holiest place in Islam -- damaged and defiled.
- Professor Leif Wenar
Publisher: Oxford University Press

consequential 意義重大的

FUNDAMENTALIST 原教旨主義的

pivot 核心

royals 王室成員

Grand 大

were dislodged 被逐出

defiled 遭到了褻瀆
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-04-2017, 17:23 編輯,總共編輯了 3 次。
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Re: BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

文章 Wildcat » 21-04-2017, 22:52 •  [Post 2 樓]

The year 1979 was a great crisis for Saudi regime. The royals' legitimacy had always rested on their leadership of the Saudi religious community and on the endorsement of its ultraconservative clerics. Now it seemed that the royals were in danger of being swept away by a populist fundamentalist revival consuming the region. The king's response was to outflank and co-opt the radicals. The regime had already been using its large post-1973 oil rents to bolster its reactionary religious establishment at home, and to empower that establishment to spread the faith abroad. Now it doubled down on that strategy.
- Professor Leif Wenar
Publisher: Oxford University Press

legitimacy 合法性

rest on 以 ... 為基礎

endorsement 認可

ultra- 極其

clerics 神職人員

being swept away 被消滅

populist 平民主義的

revival 再流行

consuming 吞噬

outflank (尤指在政冶上) 出奇制勝

co-opt (經所有成員同意) 增選 ... 為成員

bolster 改進

reactionary: very strongly oppose to any social and political change 反動的

establishment 機構

empower 授權
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-04-2017, 17:24 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。
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Re: BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

文章 Wildcat » 22-04-2017, 14:45 •  [Post 3 樓]

The regime sprayed out petrodollars to spread Islamic fundamentalism worldwide. Mosques, schools, "study centers" -- one American think tank estimates that the Saudis spent MORE than $70 billion in a decade-and-a-half campaign to build institutions across Asia, Africa, and Europe. Here young Muslims learned Salafism, the creed that Muslims everywhere should live according to the Islam of the seventh century, including its seventh-century laws about the punishment of crimes and the treatment of women. Young Muslims were also taught the religious duty of jihad. "With a population equal to ONLY 1 percent of Muslims worldwide, Saudi Arabia funded MORE than 90 percent of the faith's costs, and these expenditures constituted the MOST expensive information campaign ever mounted."
- Professor Leif Wenar
Publisher: Oxford University Press

petrodollars: money earned by the sale of oil 石油美元

fundamentalism (穆斯林) 原教旨主義

Mosques 清真寺

think tank 智囊團

campaign 政治運動

institutions 社會福利機構 (常含貶義)

creed 信條

jihad (伊斯蘭教的) 聖戰

expenditures 開支 (額)

constitued 構成

mounted 開展
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-04-2017, 17:25 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。
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Re: BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

文章 Wildcat » 22-04-2017, 15:43 •  [Post 4 樓]

The Saudi royals' strategy of promoting Salafism at home and worldwide worked insofar as it resolved their domestic crisis and stabilized their regime. The regime's support for this pan-Islamic ideology incited thousands of young Muslims to go off to fight the godless Soviets in Afghanistan (a fight the Saudis and Americans took on in CLOSE coordination), and its encouraged many Saudi privately to support young men prosecuting violent jihads in Afghanistan and then around the world. The Saudis were impressed by the success of their ideological campaign. Saudi-funded mosques and fighters rooted down in Pakistan, sprung up in the Caucasus, further balkanized the Balkans. Oil money empowered the Saudis to spread a medieval understanding of Islam all over the world.
- Professor Leif Wenar
Publisher: Oxford University Press

insofar as 到 … 的程度

resolved 解决 (問題、困難)

pan-: including all people 泛

incited sb to do sth 煽動

go off to do sth 離開

prosecuting 繼續 (做某事)

sprung up 使突然出現

balkanized 使巴爾幹化 (指把國家分裂成幾個獨立的小國, 含貶義)

empowered 使控制局面
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-04-2017, 17:25 編輯,總共編輯了 3 次。
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Re: BLOOD OIL:TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES ...

文章 Wildcat » 22-04-2017, 16:12 •  [Post 5 樓]

to be continued ...
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