PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 30-05-2017, 06:00 •  [Post 11 樓]

An INCREASE in the sense of political hopelessness on the part of the VAST majority occurred at the SAME time that Moscow vied with New York and London as the billionaire capital of the world. (Some of the New York and London billionaires were originally from Russia.) In many countries the gap between rich and poor has grown in the past decades, BUT in PUTIN’S Russia the gap is WIDEST and the percentage of Russia’s wealth owned by the richest was the LARGEST: 110 individuals, including PUTIN’S cronies, control a staggering 35 percent of Russia’s wealth. Average household wealth has risen sevenfold since 2000, from $ 1,650 in 2000 to $ 11,900 in 2013, which might sound fabulous, BUT in 2013 median (midpoint) wealth in PUTIN’S Russia was ONLY $871: that is, 50 percent of adults in PUTIN'S Russia had total household wealth of $871 or lower. This was compared with median wealth of $ 90,252 in Canada -- with roughly the same population size and latitude as PUTIN’S Russia, or $ 1,040 for India, which has a population almost ten times larger than Russia’s and is an importer not exporter of oil.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

hopelessness 沒希望

vie 競爭;爭奪

cronies (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的) 親朋好友,親信,密友

staggering 驚人的,令人震驚的

household 一家人;一戶;家庭

sevenfold: seven times as big or as much

fabulous 極好的;絕佳的

latitude 緯度

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-07-2017, 09:59 編輯,總共編輯了 6 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 30-05-2017, 06:46 •  [Post 12 樓]

Perhaps the MOST surprising of the trends is the increase in the number of entrepreneurs arrested and imprisoned on tax evasion and other charges as part of a large-scale increase in the use of the PUTIN'S corrupt criminal justice system as a vehicle for corporate raiding by regime insiders. In the ten years from 2002 to 2012, hundreds of thousands of businessmen were actually imprisoned, not just questioned or arrested, primarily as a result of rivals, paying corrupt police, prosecutors, and judges to put away their competitors. Russian businessmen increasingly kept their money safe abroad, stimulating capital flight. Despite appointment of an ombudsman for business rights in 2012, PUTIN'S decision to proceed with the 2010 second trial of Mr Mikhayl Khodorkovskiy on TRUMPED-UP charges that EVEN the head of the Moscow Bar Association said were a "disgrace to justice" ONLY added to this lack of business confidence. Efforts by the new ombudsman, Mr Boris Titov, to amnesty the 111,000 entrepreneurs who remained in prison in 2013 foundered on the Duma's insistence that NO one amnestied could go free without paying damages or returning stolen property. However since MOST of the imprisoned claimed to have BEEN framed by PUTIN's cronies and refused to pay what they said amounted to a further shakedown, ALL BUT 2,300 remained in prison.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

entrepreneurs (尤指涉及風險的)企業家,創業者

imprisoned (被) 關押,囚禁

tax evasion (非法)逃稅

vehicle (實現、產生或表達…的)方法,手段,媒介

corporate (大)公司的

raiding (警方)突擊檢查,突然搜查

insider 內部的人,知情人,瞭解內幕者

rivals 競爭對手;敵手

prosecutors 檢察官;公訴人

put sb away 將(某人)送進監獄

stimulating 激發,激勵;促進

capital flight: a situation in which large amounts of money are sent out of a country to be kept or invested in other countries, for example, because of fears about the economy

ombudsman (政府或大型機構處理投訴的)民意調查官,巡視官,申訴專員

proceed with 繼續進行,繼續做

trump sth up 捏造(罪名),假造(罪證以陷害他人)

the Bar 律師界,司法界,法律界

be a disgrace to sb/ sth 是…的恥辱

amnesty (對政治犯的)赦免,大赦

foundered on (被) 失敗;破產

been framed (被) 陷害,誣陷

crony (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的)親朋好友,親信,密友

amount to sth 等於;意味著

shakedown 勒索,敲詐

ALL BUT 幾乎,差不多

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 22-07-2017, 10:15 編輯,總共編輯了 6 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 03-06-2017, 21:45 •  [Post 13 樓]

According to Mr Kolesnikov, the scheme worked like this: PUTIN had stipulated that 35 per cent of the funds for URGENTLY needed medical equipment would be held in PUTIN'S offshore accounts. For example, of the $203 million that the original donor Mr Roman Abramovich gave to help the hospitals, Petromed ONLY spent $130 million, with the remainder ending up in a PUTIN'S Swiss bank account. Mr Kolesnikov says that Mr Abramovich was blind to where the money went. By 2005, the fund had accumulated over $200 million and a firm called Rosinvest of which PUTIN held 94 per cent of the shares was created.

FRAGILE EMPIRE: How Russia fell in and out of love with Vladimir PUTIN

Author: Mr Ben Judah (He is currently a visiting fellow at the European Stability Initiative. His work has been featured in the Financial Times, the Economist, Prospect, Standpoint, and Foreign Policy.)
Publisher: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS

scheme 陰謀,詭計

stipulate 規定,約定;明確說明

offshore (公司或銀行) 境外的,海外的

be blind to sth 沒有注意到…;對…視而不見

shares 股票;股份
最後由 Wildcat 於 20-07-2017, 15:31 編輯,總共編輯了 6 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 10-06-2017, 16:37 •  [Post 14 樓]

.......
最後由 Wildcat 於 13-07-2017, 19:42 編輯,總共編輯了 3 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 10-06-2017, 22:32 •  [Post 15 樓]

PUTIN'S Home: Gazprom

In order to assess PUTIN’S own role in this turn toward state control, it is worth looking more closely at PUTIN’S role in Gazprom, the publicly traded but majority-state-owned gas company. Gazprom is one of the largest companies worldwide, and its activities provided 8 percent of Russia's GDP in 2011. Mr Mikhayl Krutikhin of RusEnergy, a consultancy firm, stated bluntly, "Gazprom has only one manager: PUTIN.” And this assessment is no hyperbole. According to the websites of the Russian government and the Kremlin, PUTIN has met Gazprom chief Aleksey Miller, who served as PUTIN'S deputy on the Committee for Foreign Liaison in St. Petersburg, over one hundred times —— including dozens of one-on-one meetings, since Miller became head of Gazprom in 2001. By way of comparison, the number of times American and British government websites list the then president of the United States and Britian's Prime Minister meeting one-on-one with the CEOs of an American prominent oil company or British Petroleum? Zero.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

GDP 國內生産總值

consultancy 諮詢公司;顧問服務公司

hyperbole 誇張法

deputy 代理人;副職,副手

Liaison 聯絡官,聯絡人

prominent 著名的;重要的

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 21-07-2017, 11:50 編輯,總共編輯了 9 次。
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註冊時間: 09-03-2008, 21:21

Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 10-06-2017, 23:26 •  [Post 16 樓]

Financial analysts express concern that as much as 70 percent of Gazprom's capital investments are nontransparent, non-gas-related capital expenditures, and that such behavior is tantamount to "value destruction." In the early years of PUTIN'S presidency there were still independent members of boards of directors. One such was Bill Browder, an American with British citizenship who was chairman of Hermitage Capital Management. Browder had been a huge backer of PUTIN and had endorsed the arrest of Mr Khodorkovskiy and the expropriation of Mr Yukos assets. He seemed like a perfect candidate to be on Gazprom's board. But there was a hitch: he happened to believe that greater transparency would allow minority shareholders to understand why the company was not producing better returns.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

tantamount to sth 幾近於;等於,相當於

board of directors: the group of people who shareholders choose to manage a company or organization

endorse (公開) 贊同,認可,支援

expropriate (尤指無償充公) 徵用,沒收;(尤指個人非法)侵佔,把…據為己有

hitch 臨時故障,小問題

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 21-07-2017, 11:50 編輯,總共編輯了 7 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 25-06-2017, 22:22 •  [Post 17 樓]

PUTIN'S police is considered part of a separate army branch maintained by the Minister of the Interior. It routinely comes up in the "Top 10 MOST Corrupt Police Forces" in the world list compiled by Transparency International. Russian people DON'T disagree: According to Levada Center, an independent polling entity. Russians consider the GIBDD road police to be the MOST corrupt institution in the country, leaving behind the police proper and institution of higher education, the next largest category.

Russia: PUTIN'S Playground (Empire, Revolution and the New Tsar)

Author: Ms Anastasia Edel (a recipient of the British government Chevening Award)
Publisher: LIGHTENING GUIDES

the Minister of the Interior 內政部

compiled by ... (被) ... 匯編;編纂;編輯;編製

Transparency International: an international organization that fights against corruption

polling 進行民意調查的

entity 實體;獨立存在體

institution (大學、銀行等) 機構,團體
最後由 Wildcat 於 16-07-2017, 10:03 編輯,總共編輯了 3 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 25-06-2017, 23:01 •  [Post 18 樓]

In 2015, World Justice Project ranked Russia 75th out of 102 surveyed countries in terms of rule of law. When looking at the reason behind this rating, a critical Russian concept to understand is that of proizvol, literally "unchecked will." It is a type of rule that canNOT BE tempered by laws, as they are routinely circumvented or ignored; nor by accountability, the weak mechanisms for which are mired in layers of bureaucracy; nor by legitimate opposition, as it is marginalized and systematically silenced. "There’s NO truth in the world,” goes a Russian saying.

Russia: PUTIN'S Playground (Empire, Revolution and the New Tsar)

Author: Ms Anastasia Edel (a recipient of the British government Chevening Award)
Publisher: LIGHTENING GUIDES

in terms of/ in ... terms 在…方面;從…方面來說;根據…來看

rule of law 法治;法律

rating 等級,級別;程度

literally 名副其實地,按字面含義來講

unchecked (有害物) 未受約束的,不受限制的,放任的

temper 使緩和;使變溫和;使變淡

be circumvented (尤指巧妙或非法地) 逃避,規避,繞過

nor 也不,也沒有

accountability: a situation in which someone is responsible for things that happen and can give a satisfactory reason for them

be/become mired (down) in sth (被) 深陷 … 中

bureaucracy 官僚作風;官僚主義;官僚體制

legitimate 合法的,正當的,法律允許的

marginalize (被) 邊緣化;忽視;排斥

silence 使安靜;使沈默
最後由 Wildcat 於 16-07-2017, 10:03 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 13-07-2017, 02:39 •  [Post 19 樓]

The use of intermediary firms as nontransparent, value-draining (and criminal) enterprises is legendary throughout the Russian economy, but PUTIN'S Gazprom definitely gets the prize. A U.S. Embassy cable released concluded that RosUkrEnergo (RUE) was a money-making operation for the Kremlin. Gazprom itself owned 50 percent of RUE, and 50 percent was owned by two Ukrainian oligarchs, Dmitriy Firtash (45 percent) and Ivan Fursin (5 percent). But “the circle of true beneficiaries of RUE is wider and includes Semyon Mogilevich, a Russian organized crime boss wanted by the FBI and currently in custody in Russia.” Mogilevich was soon released and took up residence in Moscow, where he lives freely. The Ukrainian government insisted that RUE be removed as middleman, but the U.S. Embassy reported that another intermediary company had already been registered to take its place.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

intermediary 調解人,中間人

money-making: making a profit or giving the opportunity to make a profit

oligarch 寡頭政治家;寡頭統治集團成員

custody (尤指等候法庭審判期間的) 監禁,拘留

take up residence/residency somewhere 到 (某地) 定居;開始定居在 (某地)

middleman 經銷商;中間商

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 21-07-2017, 11:50 編輯,總共編輯了 7 次。
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Re: PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

文章 Wildcat » 13-07-2017, 03:36 •  [Post 20 樓]

Focus on RUE was important because it was seen in the West as a major vehicle for bringing together the Kremlin, business interests, and organized crime. Beginning in the mid-2000s the U.S. intelligence community provided a major assessment of the threat to U.S. national security posed, according to a Justice Department source, by the “growing nexus in Russian and Eurasian states among government, organized crime, intelligence services, and big business figures," including in the fields of energy and finance. Without naming Russia or PUTIN specifically, Attorney General Michael Mukasey stated that of all the threats posed by international organized crime, the first was that “international organized criminals control significant positions in the global energy and strategic materials markets ... So-called ‘iron triangles’ of corrupt business leaders, corrupt government officials, and organized criminals exert substantial influence over the economies of many countries.... One of the most well-known recent examples is the case of Semyon Mogilevich (the Russian organized crime boss) [who] ... is said to exert influence over large portions of the natural gas industry in parts of what used to be the Soviet Union."

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

vehicle (實現、產生或表達…的) 方法,手段,媒介

Kremlin 克裡姆林宮;俄羅斯政府

organized crime 犯罪集團;有組織犯罪,集團犯罪

national security 國家安全

pose 造成,引起 (尤指問題或困難)

nexus (重要的) 連接,聯繫

Eurasian 歐亞 (大陸) 的

figures 人物

strategic 有助於計劃成功的;戰略 (性) 的

exert 運用;行使 (權威、權力等);施加 (影響等)

substantial 大的;可觀的;價值巨大的;重大的

整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !

https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
最後由 Wildcat 於 21-07-2017, 11:51 編輯,總共編輯了 6 次。
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