Note: The Corruption Perceptions Index ranks countries based on how corrupt a country's public sector is perceived to be, based on expert and business surveys. The higher the number, the more corrupt the country is perceived to be by officials and experts in that country. The Control of Corruption score ranges from -2.5 to 2.5. Lower values correspond to worse governance outcomes. The Bribe Payers Index ranks the world's wealthiest countries according to the likelihood that their own firms will pay bribes abroad. Nigeria was not rich enough to be part of this cohort. Russia finished last. The Human Development Index is a composite measure of indicators along three dimensions: life expectancy, educational attainment, and command over the resources needed for a decent living.
Sources: United Nations, Human Development Report (United Nations Development Programme 2013); Transparency International, Country Reports for Nigeria and Russia (Transparency International 2013).
Both countries also rank low in the control of corruption, although shockingly the UN ranks Nigeria slightly better than Russia at controlling corruption. However, Russia ranks high in the Human Development Index, while Nigeria is low. This suggests that the country's slide into the abyss cannot be blamed on the Russian population. They have more than sufficient capabilities, as measured by the level of education and other socioeconomic indicators, to make substantial progress, but they are persistently hampered by elite predation that has dragged down economic growth, increased wealth inequality, and inhibited political freedoms.
It is a tragedy for Russia's talented population that the actions of their leaders (Yeltsin & Putin) have stymied development to the extent that they should be compared with much less developed countries. And average Russians know this. Transparency International's 2013 survey found that 77 percent of Russian respondents considered their government's anticorruption policies ineffective or very ineffective; 85 percent said that their government was run by a few big entities acting in their own best interests; 92 percent responded that corruption is a major problem in the public sector; and 89 percent felt that corruption in Russia had either stayed the same or gotten worse in the prior two years.
Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER
cohort (social science) 有共同特點（通常指年齡）的一群人
life expectancy （尤指人的）預期壽命
command over 指揮；控制；管轄
be hampered (被) 阻礙，妨礙
predation: the fact that an animal hunts, kills, and eats other animals
整本公義巨著: "PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?", 可於網上免費閱讀 ( pdf ) !
https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=9s ... 2C&f=false
於 21-07-2017, 11:47 編輯，總共編輯了 8 次。